2.3 Workflow:

The movement of material and garment parts through the conversion process is workflow. Balancing is the process of planning a smooth work flow with a steady supply of work for each operation. . Balancing involves planning and scheduling input, based on the demand for finished parts and products. Demand basically originates from two factors which include:

• External needs for parts
• Internal need for parts

External demands are established by the customers outside the firm whereas internal demands are created by succeeding operations as parts and components are needed to assemble products.

To guarantee a smooth and consistent work flow an inventory buffer is needed ahead of some operations. A buffer consists of a planned backlog of work that is available for processing for each operation. If operations are planned and scheduled in such a way that each takes the same amount of time, there would be a smooth, even flow of the style.

A work delay at one operation for whatever reason will have a negative impact on succeeding operation. When one operation is not completed at the scheduled time, all other operations would be delayed. In seeking to maintain an even work flow, it is essential to determine the operation that is consistently the slowest. If all work on a particular style must go through the specific slow operation, it will dictate the rate of work flow and the volume that can be completed in a specific time period. This operation is often referred to as a bottleneck, a constraint to throughput, because it limits the volume of work that can be completed in a work day. Often work in process will build up ahead of a bottleneck. Once a bottleneck is determined engineers need to study the operation to determine whether it can be feasibly improved or not.

2.4 Work measurement:

Work study is used to determine the time required to complete one element of one operation or the amount of work that can be performed by one operator in a specified time. Work measurement techniques used by garment manufacturers include time studies, pre-determined time systems, standard data, operator reporting and work sampling.

2.5 Time study:

Time measurement is a work measurement technique used by apparel engineers to determine the rate at which the specific operation can be performed. A time study requires a method description for the specific operation to determine the work elements involved, the order in which they occur, the time required to complete each element and the rate a particular worker is working.To prepare time study, analysts break the operation into elements. Each element involves a group of motion with a definite beginning and end that can be identified and timed.

2.5.1 Objectives of Time Study:

 To understand the production capacity of the factory
 To draw up plans for an appropriate target output
 To do an effective planning and scheduling
 To obtain an evaluation standard for order receiving, planning, using the time study as the basis of the cost estimate control.
 To develop and check production standards.
 The main objective is that time study is used as a basis for production planning and control system.

2.6 PLANNING:
Planning is one of the most important project management and time management techniques. Planning is preparing a sequence of action steps to achieve some specific goal. If planning is done effectively the time and effort required to achieve the goal is minimized to a great extent.
A plan is like a map. When following a plan, you can always see how much you have progressed towards the defined goal and how far you are from your destination. Knowing where you are is essential for making good decisions on where to go or what to do next. Important and critical decisions are easily taken while following a plan.
One more reason why you need planning is again the 80/20 Rule. It is well established that for unstructured activities 80 percent of the effort give less than 20 percent of the valuable outcome. You either spend much time on deciding what to do next, or you are taking many unnecessary, unfocused, and inefficient steps.
Planning is also very important for meeting your needs during each action step towards your defined goal with your time, money, or other resources. With careful planning you can see if at some point you are likely to face a problem. It is much easier to adjust your plan to avoid or smoothen a coming crisis, rather than to deal with the crisis when it comes unexpected.

2.7 Production planning control:

Production planning may be defined as the technique of foreseeing every step in a long series of separate operations, each step to be taken at the right time and in the right place and each operation to be performed in maximum efficiency.

Production planning is a management function in which decisions like the following are taken:
 What production facilities are required?
 How these production facilities should be implemented in the space available?
 How they should be used to produce the desired outputs?

All these decisions are directly linked to the production planning of any working factory. Production planning has two main aspects. First is the ROUTING which is basically sequencing of different operations that should be followed to complete the required product. The second one is the LAYOUT of the floor where the work will be done so that is should be completed efficiently.

Production planning is a function concerned with
 Planning the production line
 Organizing the planning
 Directing the flow of production
 Controlling the flow of production

The planning includes the materials and methods used to make the products and the way in which the machines equipments should be laid out in the available space for production. All the managerial functions are most effective when they are done progressively. In the same way if production planning and control is done progressively it would be more effectively. This means the best results are obtained when planning starts with a broad analysis and then it is proceeded step by step to fill in more details. The steps in production planning are discussed in detail below.

2.7.1 Steps of production planning and control:

Production planning and control involves a series of some critical steps. These steps are followed in a sequential manner to complete an effective production planning and control system.

2.7.1.1 Production Planning:
1. Planning
2. Routing
3. Scheduling
4. Loading

2.7.1.2 Production Control:
1. Dispatching
2. Following up
3. Inspection
4. Corrective Measures

2.7.1.3 Routing:

Routing is a process in which the best sequence and path for the operations is established. The main concept of routing is to determine the best and cheapest sequence for the operations and to ensure that the sequence is properly followed. To perform the operations the proper functioning machines and the required number of machines should also be worked out. Following activities are involved in the routing process: 6
 Analysis of the article to make sure what to make and how to make
 Determining the quality and the type of the material used
 Determining the production operations and their sequence
 Analysis of the cost of article.

2.7.1.4 Scheduling:

Scheduling is mainly concerned with time. It means the time required performing the operation and the total time required to complete series the operations as routed. The scheduling patterns differ from job to job which is explained below. 7

2.7.1.4.1 Production schedule:
Production schedule is defined as the amount of work which can be easily handled completed by the machines/equipments and operators without any interference.

2.7.1.4.2 Master production schedule:
The master production schedule (MPS) translates the marketing and operation plan of the company into a plan for producing specific product in the future. Master schedule is basically the weekly or monthly breakdown of the production in the definite time period for each order running in the factory. With the help of master schedule the factory is in a better position to switch from one article to another article as per the changed production requirements. Master schedule is followed by operator schedule which determines the time required by an operator to complete the given job.

2.7.1.4.2.1 MPS Activities:
MPS provides the information by which marketing and manufacturing are coordinated. The MPS shows when product will be available in the future, thereby providing the basis for marketing to promise delivery to customer. Theses promises will be valid as long as manufacturing executes the MPS according to plan. As the production is completed and the shipments are made on time the MPS record must be kept up to date. Doing this means implementing a periodic review and update cycle that we term “Rolling through time. 8

2.7.1.4.2.2 MPS Objectives:

MPS basically determines the product that will be completed, the time it will take in completion of the product and the quantities completed in the required time. It is the anticipated schedule for the company. The MPS specifies that how the product is going to be manufactured to meet the future demands. The MPS takes into account:
 Capacity limitation
 Cost of production
 Other resource considerations
 Marketing and operations plan

2.7.1.4.3 Manufacturing schedule:
Manufacturing schedule is very useful where few products are manufactured repeatedly at regular intervals. It shows the required quality of the product and sequence in which it should be operated.

2.7.1.5 Loading:

Loading concerns with who will do what work. It includes the work given to the operators on their machines or work places. In many industries gantt charts are used to determine the existing work load and to predict that how fast the work can be done. This technique allows comparing that how that work has been done and how it should have been done. 9

2.8 Production control:

Production control is a process of controlling the planned production and keeping regular follow ups and checks that everything is working as per planning. Production control department’s responsibility is to keep an eye on the working environment and to make sure that things are working according to their plans. Production control starts even before the production actually begins. There are four stages of production control which are as follows:

 Observing the progress and recording it,
 Analyzing the data by comparing the performance with the plans and with the competitors’ achievement.
 To take immediate actions wherever necessary to modify the plans and redirect activities to attain all the targets.
 Feeding back information and conclusions to the planning department in order to improve future planning.

These four stages are very important in the control procedure. All these stages are interlinked to each other and are worthless if any one of these is not present. There is no point of observing any progress and collecting data if the collected data is not going to be analyzed. If no data is analyzed you cannot compare your actual progress and your planned progress and you will not even know where you are standing. If no data is analyzed you will not be able to understand the bottlenecks in the process and it will not be known that where is the pause or break in the process. So no corrective actions can be taken to modify the plans and make any changes to remove the bottlenecks. Feeding back is again impossible if the data is not collected and there will not be any improvements in future planning.

Manufacturing schedule is very useful where few products are manufactured repeatedly at regular intervals. It shows the required quality of the product and sequence in which it should be operated.

2.7.1.6 Loading:

Loading concerns with who will do what work. It includes the work given to the operators on their machines or work places. In many industries gantt charts are used to determine the existing work load and to predict that how fast the work can be done. This technique allows comparing that how that work has been done and how it should have been done. 9

2.8 Production control:

Production control is a process of controlling the planned production and keeping regular follow ups and checks that everything is working as per planning. Production control department’s responsibility is to keep an eye on the working environment and to make sure that things are working according to their plans. Production control starts even before the production actually begins. There are four stages of production control which are as follows:

 Observing the progress and recording it,
 Analyzing the data by comparing the performance with the plans and with the competitors’ achievement.
 To take immediate actions wherever necessary to modify the plans and redirect activities to attain all the targets.
 Feeding back information and conclusions to the planning department in order to improve future planning.

These four stages are very important in the control procedure. All these stages are interlinked to each other and are worthless if any one of these is not present. There is no point of observing any progress and collecting data if the collected data is not going to be analyzed. If no data is analyzed you cannot compare your actual progress and your planned progress and you will not even know where you are standing. If no data is analyzed you will not be able to understand the bottlenecks in the process and it will not be known that where is the pause or break in the process. So no corrective actions can be taken to modify the plans and make any changes to remove the bottlenecks. Feeding back is again impossible if the data is not collected and there will not be any improvements in future planning.

This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s